Directories are not really search engines, but mainly systematically arranged listings of links selected by humans instead
of a computer program. Most are by now outdated and no longer maintained. They do serve a function in OSINT though.
Introduction: A few directories more or less suited for general purpose.
o - Aviva Directory -- Categorised, with search engine. Launched 2005. Selective, human edited. Organised by topic, then by country.
o - Best of the Web --
o - Galaxy.einet -- One of the oldest directories on the Net, EiNET lists 2.000.000 links in about 700.000 categories. Links are annotated.
o - The WWW virtual Library -- Geneva, Switserland. Very small, but could be usefull.
Introduction: The following are Dutch language only.
o - Start Nederland -- Dutch links in a very compact layout.
o - Startpagina -- Dutch language systematic arrangement of all kinds of subjects and 'daughterpages'. Popular.
o - DMOZ Archive -- Archive of the DMOZ Open Directory Project. Closed since 2016.
o - DuckDuckGo -- Search engine with good search language and good coverage, aims to protect the searcher's privacy.
also interesting are the search features.
Introduction: Some major search engines that because of functionality may be considered 'important', but for one reason or another have
not made it to the Top Choices.
o - Ask -- Founded as Ask Jeeves in 1996 in Oakland Calif. Has made a transition from a traditional search engine to (also) a question
answering machine. Can be used as an alternative for directory search. Works surprisingly good when asking 'what is' questions.
o - Baidu -- Official PR China search engine. In Chinese.
o - Bing -- Microsoft, launched June 2009. After the launch of Live as successor to MSN in 2006, and subsequent efforts to purchase Yahoo
which failed, the Bing Search Engine is Microsofts new attempt to compete with Google. Bing is much better than any of its
predecessors with many interesting features not found anywhere else.
Advanced search options,
Advanced search keywords,
Operator Precedence, the most useful help page is the
Advanced Operator Reference,
country, region, and language codes
o - Exalead -- Although its database seems a lot smaller and outdated, Exalead's search language has much more functionalities which enables
the searcher to create more complex searches: near, truncation, and search suggestions. See web search syntax.
o - Gigablast -- Large, US., with a good search language. Includes a directory.
o - Google -- Best known, large, unpredictable.
basic help ;
o - Yandex -- Russian. Most popular search engine in Russia, in English. 5 local versions: Russian, Kazachstan, Belarus, Turkey and Ukraine.
Basic search help,
o - Wolfram|Alpha -- Produced by Wolfram Research. Launched May 2009, aims to provide a single source for answers to factual queries (thus not
a search engine), accepts free form input and serves as a computational knowledge engine (not the traditional search engine)
with an internal knowledge base instead of searching the web.
Introduction: Claim to preserve the privacy of the searcher by intercepting all private information such as cookies etc. Also consider anonymous
o - DuckDuckGo -- No query tracking, filters out private data, history, previous questions. Also removes all 'clutter'.
o - StartPage -- By IxQuick. No query tracking or tracking cookies.
o - Infoseek -- Powered by Yahoo!
o - Northern Light --
o - Yahoo -- Used to be one of the first SSE and competitor to Google. After its cooperation with Microsoft Bing, the search language and
search results are (almost) identical to those of Bing.
The category of Serial search engines is used to search more Single Search Engines in 'serial mode' without having to retype the query, in order to follow "Reusers
Law of 3".
o - Search3 -- Searches Google, Yahoo and Live simultaneously. Does not integrate results, but presents results in three columns, one for
each search engine used.
o - Soovle -- Graphical serial engine, searches Wikipedia, Answers.com, YouTube, Netflix, Weather channel, Buy.com, eBay, Bing, Yahoo, Amazon
o - Sputtr -- When setting 'Open results in new window', Sputtr can be used as a alternative to SearchX.
o - TwinGine -- Kind of ''Twin'' search engine, searches two search engines (Yahoo, Google) simultaneously, presenting results for each engine
in its own window.
o - myALLsearch -- TABbed serial search engine uses Bing, MyWay, Google, Ask, V9, DuckDuckGo, Exalead, ZapMeta, Dogpile and Qrobe
o - QuerySter SearchX -- Site does not exist anymore. Serial metasearcher, uses about 10 SEs by printing a floating bar on top of the original SE search
screen. Works great, except for Google when the floating bar suddenly disappers.
o - Trovando -- Italy. Uses the main four single search engines (G, B, Yahoo(?) and Ask) as well as about 15 other engines. Also lists meta
o - Zuula -- Serial metasearcher using 5 SSE's in tabs, but the tabs can be configured. Very handy: saves recent searches. Supports OR,
-, phrase, site:. Also for Blogs.
Organizes results into clusters based on related topics or similar content. Makes browsing large sets of results much faster,
and the clustering may help in finding better keywords. Thanks to MagdaP for some tips!
o - Carrot2 -- With tabs to cluster results from different search engines, except Google.
o - WebClust.com -- Clustering engine written by a computer scientist to make sense of large amounts of textual information extracted from internet,
intranet or digital libraries. Clustering goes one level deep.
o - iBoogie -- By Cyber Tavern. Customizable clustering search engine, with optionally searching and clustering info from specified source
only such as FBI, Library of Congress a.o. Also news and images tabs.
A couple of search engines for scientific information only. Also consider the category Federated Search Engines.
o - Google scholar -- Scientific info, also and mainly a citation research tool.
o - Science.gov Alliance -- Deep Web Technologies. Gateway to about 50 million science information docs provided by US government agencies.
o - Scientific Commons -- Switserland. Access to free scientific information, has about 26 million citations.
o - Scirus -- Will retire early 2014. For scientific information only. "...most comprehensive scientific research tool on the web. With
over 450 million scientific items indexed at last count, it allows researchers to search for not only journal content but
also scientists' homepages, courseware, pre-print server material, patents and institutional repository and website information."
o - Scitopia -- Deep Web Technologies. Federates search engine. Access to about 3.5 million documents, including patents and government data.
Auto clustering by topic, author, journal title, publisher, affiliation and date. Other frequency tables as well! Mostly beta
o - WorldWideScience.org -- "The global science Gateway". "...global science gateway connecting you to national and international scientific databases
and portals. WorldWideScience.org accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of global
science sources. The WorldWideScience Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and
provides the governance structure for WorldWideScience.org".
Internet tools are some clever instruments or techniques that can be used to assist (!) the searcher in validating informatin
found on the Net.
o - Soovle -- For six search engines, will return 'synonyms' for each, double clicking on one will take the searcher to that search engine
and return results.
o - FAGAN finder --
o - Google features --
o - Google operators --
o - pandia search central --
o - Goshme -- For searching search engines. Registration required.
Introduction: These tools are specifically designed to check for the overlap between SEs, if there is any...
o - Missing pieces -- From DogPile meta search engine.
o - Searchboth.com -- Returns search results in two columns of either Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ask, Dogpile, Metacrawler, Altavista (?), Looksmart and
o - Thumbshots ranking -- Gives a ranking comparison between results from two search engines of your choice.
o - Top 100+ Search Engines -- Melanie Colburn. Starts a discussion on what exactly a search engine is.
Introduction: Enable comparison of search engine rankings by presenting search results of multiple search engines on screen, typically each
in their own tab or frame.
o - BlindSearch -- By Michael Kordahi. Presents search results in 3 column without the name of the search engine. The user 'votes' for one of
the resultslists to only then get a look of the search engine.
o - GrabAll -- Compare rankings of two search engines, but can choose from any of eight.
o - Scour -- Ranks Google, Yahoo and Live results in a single list, with ranking indicators for each search engine on the right hand side.
o - Sez4 Beta -- Can pick 2 to 4 search engines, results will be displayed in a frame for each search engine. Offers to search SSE (Google,
Yahoo, Bing, AllTheWeb, Ask, Cuil, and others), but also meta search engines, news SE, blogs, video, social net, and more.
o - TripleMe -- Compares three searh engines (MSNLive, Google, Yahoo) in a single frame.
o - Twingine -- enter one search to get results in two separate windows: one for Google and one for Yahoo.
Introduction: Dutch search engines, Dutch origin, mainly Dutch language, typically aimed at the Dutch market. Most are non-functional or
o - Search.nl
o - Bing.nl --
o - DuckDuckGo.nl --
o - Google.nl --
o - Ilse -- Founded 1996. Owned by Sanoma Media. Does not exist anymore, results are delivered via Startpagina.nl
o - Vinden.nl -- Metasearch engine. Identical to Zoeken.nl and Izito.nl. Owned by Visymo. Results via Google.
o - Voelspriet -- Search engine search tips. Old, outdated, partly wrong and many links do not work anymore.
o - ZOEK.nl -- Meta search engine. Identical to Vinden.nl and Izito.nl. Owned by Visymo. Uses Google for search results.
Also called hidden web, or dark web, or unvisible web which is not true. Many of the below promises things they don't do,
or simply don't function at all. There is a special subcategory for the Onion network searchers, see 'Tor searchers'.
o - Complete Planet -- Bright Planet Corp. Listing of about 70.000 searchable databases and specialty search engines, not found by 'normal' search
o - Invisible Web -- (ooo, is being refurbished).
Introduction: See category 'tor search' for onion directories and search engines
o - Tor Browser Bundle -- The Onion router. Software package including browser (Firefox only) to surf the web almost anonymously, as well as diving
into the .onion pseudo domain network. Obligatory for searchng .onion websites.
o - Goshme -- To find search engines with exclusive content and features. Needs (free) registration, which can be slow.
o - Turbo 10 -- "Search the deep net".
This type of SE searches multiple sources simultaneously in parallel in real time, contrary to meta search engines that search
multiple static indexes.
o - Biznar beta -- Deep Web Technologies. Aimed primarily at business sources. Basic and advanced search, alerts, many search tools (like clustering)
and frequency analyses tools. Sources may be preselected, results can be saved and mailed.
Search engines to find files in the FTP domain.
o - FTP site list -- Monthly updated listing of anonymuos FTP sites. International.
o - FTPsearchengines.com -- Listing of FTP search engines, FTP-clients, file searchers and an introduction to FTP.
o - Filewatcher -- Searching on (parts of) filenames
Here are some examples of visual output of search engines. Most of them are very interesting experiments, but not yet usefull
enough for serious searching.
o - Google enabled Visual Search -- Runs on windows only.
o - Grokker -- Nice, but no support for Linux. Two modes: outline view (clustering) and map view.
o - KwMap
o - Mooter
o - NewsMap -- Designed by Marumushi, uses a treemap to present Google news, where the more important news items are given more prominence
and headlines are clickable to load the news article itself.
o - TouchGraph
o - Webbrain 2.0
Introduction: Here are the tools that unfortunately do not function anymore.
o - Kartoo --
o - Missing Pieces -- Developed by InfoSpace and hosted by Dogpile, showed the overlap between the by then big three search engines. Does not function
Binary search engines are typically used to find binary postings on UseNet regarding films, digital books, software, music
and the like. A binary search engine is a kind of catalogue, it will only indicate in which usenet group a certain posting
is to be found. Other software is needed to actually retrieve the items. Also, a payserver is needed that will offer the usenet
binary groups with reasonable retention.
o - Binsearch.net --
o - NZBIndex --
o - YabSearch --
o - Newzbin -- Fee based, for members only.
o - Binaries4all -- About binary newsgroups. Guides and step by step explanation on using binary newsgroups and on how to download files from
binary newsgroups. Also explains NZBs, archiving, extracting, software for downloading, posting to groups, FTD tutorials,
o - BinIndex -- Is 'currently' down. Binary search engine and newsgroup browser
o - Bibliografia Nazionale Italiana (IT) --
o - Bibliographie Nationale de France (FR) -- Online, French only. RSS service. systematic per month, no search option..
o - British National Bibliography (UK) -- Uses Dewey Decimal (DDC) and LC headings. Also forthcoming publications. The weekly is at The Week's new BNB records in downloadble PDF's.
o - Deutsche Nationalbibliographie (DE) --
o - National bibliography (BE) --
o - National bibliography online (NL) -- Online database, good search functionality, English and Dutch. Last year only. Includes forthcoming publications
o - Out now : Netherlands bibliography weeklist -- Postponed from April 2015 onwards. Weekly list of the Dutch national bibliography. Published weekly, in Eng and Dutch. A-list:
new books, first issues and special issues of journals and annuals, as well as electronic publications, B-list: publications
issued by governemental authorities (national and local), scientific institutes and similar organizations, privately published
dissertations and other university-papers. C-list: other new publications.
Listing links to bookshops and sources for full text books.
o - Amazon --
o - Amerigo --
o - Barnes Noble --
o - Bibliofind --
o - Noord Nederlandsche Boekhandel --
o - A9 -- Amazon's book search engine.
o - Google Books -- Mainly reviews, also lots of full text books.
o - Google Ebookstore -- About 3m titles. Intended for mobile reading. Titles in uers' personal library are stored in the cloud. Partly fee-based,
o - Million Book Collection -- The Universal Digital Library.
o - Open Content Alliance -- "...is a collaborative effort of a group of cultural, technology, nonprofit, and governmental organizations from around the
world that helps build a permanent archive of multilingual digitized text and multimedia material. An archive of contributed
material is available on the Internet Archive website and through Yahoo! and other search engines and sites."
o - Open Library -- About 22m books of which about 1m with full text. With clustering and frequency table tools. Beta.
o - Project Gutenberg -- Access to 28000 free full text books online. About another 100.000 are availble at the project's partners and affiliates.
Introduction: Traditionally, there are three major general purpose vendors:
o - Factiva -- U.K. Mainly aimed at business news. Many news sources for business analyses, companies, markets etc. Great in creating custom
made end-products for the end-user, good search language and coverage, although the automated process of assigning keywords
often fails. Use the Factiva database catalogue to get an impression on the coverage.
o - Lexis-Nexis -- USA. Largest aggregator worldwide. Billions of documents online. Fair search language and fair support. Tends to be a bit
fluffy. Good coverage of Dutch newspapers. Comes in many flavours: LN Academic, LN Diligence, etc. Acquired Moreoever in 2014.
The database catalogue may be used to look up which sources are available. Here is the search language help files.
o - Proquest Dialog -- US. Aimed at scientific and technical information, also business and some news. Excellent selection of databases, very good
search language and meta data design, very good support and documentation.
Direct links to the database documentation: Proquest Dialog Customer Resources with links to the search guides, quick reference cards and the Proquest Dialog Database catalogue ; ProQuest Dialog ProSheets detailed descriptions of each database.
Introduction: Below is a selection of the large - more or less - general purpose commercial information providers.
o - Bloomberg -- Business and markets. Financial information services, news and desktop integration. Expensive, but the most authorative.
o - Open Source Center -- Top class information source for international relations and security. Formerly the FBIS, now OSC. Needs (free) registration,
Introduction: Also see the category Government
o - OpMaat -- Sdu. Dutch language legal database offering databases, journals, jurisprudence. Dutch only.
o - PiCarta -- By OCLC. Access to the Dutch central union catalogue and Online Contents. Fee based
o - IHS Jane's --
o - USNI Periscope --
Only the general encyclopedias will be listed here. There are however thousands more, typically specialised in some subject.
Please note that many general encyclopedia hardly have a online presence but are very important anyway, like Encyclopedia
Americana, La Grand Larousse, Deutsche Encyclopedia.
o - Encyclopedia Britannica -- Probably the worlds most famous scientific encyclopedia.
o - WikipediA -- Most popular one, but its reliability is doubtfull, although the enormous peer group suggest the contrary.
o - Encyclopedia.com -- Searches the Columbia Encyclopedia and some others, as well as dictionaries.
Gazetteers are geographical dictionaries or directories. They provide important reference information about places and place
o - Falling Rain Global Gazetteer -- Directory of Cities and Towns in the world. Click on a country to go deeper into the directory. Most country pages also have
an Airports and Aviation Waypoint listing. Some regions/cities are in other (local) languages such as Chinese, Korean, Hindi,
etc.Result may include: a map, name, entity, lat-long coordinates, elevation (in feet) and population size.
o - Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names -- Search tool, search by name, place type or Nation. Results include a clickable hierarchy of the location. Very useful for
basic country information.
A well prepared free text search strategy starts with finding the terminology. What terms best describe the concept at hand.
This category lists some tools that may coome in handy.
Introduction: Dictionaries can be very helpful in preparation of a search. They should be used in accordance to the Semantic Table to create
proper keywords and paying attention to such things as synonyms, homonyms, spelling variations, translations, history, etc.
o - IATE -- ''Interactive Terminology for Europe''. Succesor to Eurodicotom. European Terminology database. Very usefull for bureaucratic
terminology in all languages of the EU.
o - Merriam-Webster -- American dictionary, thesaurus, medical. Returns definitions, examples of use, some relational terms.
o - MetaGlossary -- In Beta. For looking up definitions of terms. Returns related terms and definitions with sources. Handy also to find synonyms
or other related terms.
o - Oxford English Dictionary -- Oxford University Press. English to English dictionary.
o - The Free Dictionary -- "...English, Medical, Legal, Financial, and Computer Dictionaries, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Idioms, Encyclopedia, a Literature
o - Dictionnaire de L'Academie Francaise -- 9th edtion, in French.
o - Le petit Larousse -- Dictionnaires de francais et encyclopedie.
o - Duden -- Dictionary with synonyms,
o - Interglot translation dictionary -- In English, based in The Netherlands. Independent online translation dictionary. Autocomplete and spellcheck. English, Spanish,
Dutch, german, French, Swedish.
o - WordReference.com -- Translations, descriptions and synonyms for French, German, Italian, Spanish, dutch, Swedish, Catalan, Swedish, Russian, Portugese,
English, and more
o - Algemeen Nederlands Woordenboek -- In Dutch, online dictionary of contemporary dutch of The Netherlands and Flaunders, with examples sentences, general grammatical
properties, spelling and pronounciation.
o - MWB : Mijnwoordenboek -- In Dutch, translates to and from English, Dutch, French, German and Spanish. Annotated, multidisciplinary (also legal terms
+ explanations, technical terms etc.). Gives excellent explanations of terminology depending on discipline or science.
o - Straattaal betekenis weten? -- List of street terminology spoken in larger cities in The Netherlands. In Dutch.
o - Straatwoordenboek.nl -- Dutch street slang. Holds about 10.000 terms and more than 3100 definitions.
o - Thesaurus Politiekunde -- Zoekinstrument voor het terugvindbaar maken van kennis en publicaties, onderhouden door het Kennis en Informatieknooppunt
van de Politieacademie. Bijzonder handig voor het vinden van alternatieve zoektermen. Geeft per term relaties weer met andere
termen. Met directe links naar de catalogi van het mediacentrum.
o - Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal -- Instituut voor de Nederlandse taal. Covers 1500 to 1976
o - Woordenlijst -- In Dutch. Also known as ''Het Groene Boekje'', official spelling list of Dutch words.
o - Acronyms Finder -- Acronym Finder is the world's largest and most comprehensive dictionary of acronyms, abbreviations, and initialisms. More
than 5 million acronyms and abbreviations. Categorized.
o - Slangit : the slang dictionnary -- The source for finding common used acronyms, emoticons, etc. Very useful if you want to search through Social Media.
o - Synoniemen.net -- Definitions of terms and alternatives. Links to other sysnonym sites. In Dutch
o - The free thesaurus -- Synonym finder. Extensive, not always relevant though. The popup screens with word explanations are handy.
o - Thesaurus.com -- Good for synonyms, broader and narrower terms. With example sentences. Also includes related terms for the related terms (...).
o - Wikibrains -- Online brainstorming tool. Enter a topic and see associated terms. Click on one of the bubbles to get more information on
it in the sidebar.
Introduction: Some general purpose online translate tools.
o - Bab.la -- ''Dictionary Vocabulary Translation''. Translation to/from the English from mostly European languages, but also Hindi, kapanese,
Korean and Arabic. With useage examples and pronounciation. Includes synonyms.
o - Bing Translator. -- Similar to Google Translate. You can choose between different views of the original text and the translated one. Very useful
is the "side-by-side" view of translations.
o - Google Translate -- Many languages, not just translating text or words, but also translated search, i.e., searching Arab language websites using
English language terms. You can alos tranlsate complete webpages.
o - Links online dictionaries -- Extensive list of links to dictionaries of about 150 languages.
For prospective searching, to find information that cites the information in the search argument, to find information that
is newer then what we have. Also consider the vertical citation indexes like CLAIMS and Derwernt Patents Citations Index (both
Dialog) for patent citations.
Also try the link: operator available in Exalead. Used to be available in Google and Yahoo but has since some time now been turned off.
o - Academic Search -- Microsoft.
o - CiteSeerX beta -- Succesor of CiteSeer. "Citations made by indexed documents". Searches about 767.000 docs. Emphasis on mathematics and computer
o - Google Scholar -- Limited, simple, but useable.
o - Arts & Humanities Citation Index -- ISI Institute of Scientific Information. Dialog file 439.
o - ISI Web of Knowledge --
o - Science Citation Index -- ISI Institute of Scientific Information. Dialog file 34, 434.
o - Scopus -- Elsevier B.V. Much larger then the ISI producsts.
o - Social Science Citation Index -- ISI Institute of Scientific Information. Dialog file 7.
o - Web of Science -- Thomson.
o - Aircraft Charter World -- Commercial site, containing informatie about over 13.000 airports worldwide, their location, basic information and capacity.
o - PilotFriend -- Collection of information for pilots: aviation weather, simple airport database, and general information on several aspects
o - World Aeronautical Database -- Database containing information on nearly 10,000 airports and over 11,000 navaids worldwide.
o - FlightRadar24 -- Live air traffic on a map or satellite with moving icons. International. Gives information on movement, flight information
, position, altitude, route, and more. Also cockpit view.
o - The Airport Guide -- The-Airport-Guide.com is an online tool assisting operators of all types locate airport information to include handlers, maintenance
or catering. Outdated. Not updated since nov 2010.
Free and fee based country information. See separate entries for more specific country information like government, news, telecommunication, etc.
Introduction: Some sources with good or moderate country information for free.
o - BBC Monitoring Country Profiles -- Country information for all countries. On the start page, choose between countries, territorise or international organisations.
Every country profile is split up in 5 sub-categories: Overview, Facts, Leaders, Media and a Timeline with the main historical
o - CIA World Fact Book -- Country information for all countries, updated yearly, available for download in a ZIP file. Descriptions are short but fairly
o - Country Insights -- From the Canadian Center for Intercultural Learning. Go beyond the do's and don'ts in a country.
o - Country studies -- "...This website contains the on-line versions of books previously published in hard copy by the Federal Research Division
of the Library of Congress [...]. Each study offers a comprehensive description and analysis of the country or region's historical
setting, geography, society, economy, political system, and foreign policy." Only 110 countries are represented. Even older
dates than the Library of Congress Country Studies.
o - Economist Country Reports -- Although commercial, lots of useful country information is for free. Very reliable source.
o - Globaledge --
o - Human Rights Watch (HRW) --
o - Institute for Security Studies --
o - Library of Congress (U.S.A.) Country Studies -- Library of Congress. "...presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political,
and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world". Useful for historical purposes only.
o - Library of Congress Law Library Nations of the World -- The Guide to Law Online is an annotated compendium of Internet links; a portal of Internet sources of interest to legal researchers.
o - Reporters without borders (RSF) --
o - UNDESA National Information --
o - World Bank -- Categorised macro economic data of all the countries in the world. Downloadable in XML and X
Introduction: Travel information typically gives current and up-to-date information about countries, specifically aimed at travellers: security,
crime, transport, local laws, customs, visa, helath, etc.
o - Reizen en landen -- Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In Dutch. Country descriptions for travellers. with travel advice and information about countries. Updated almost monthly.
o - Travel Information by Belgian Ministry of Foreign affairs (in Dutch) -- Country advice provided for Belgian travellers. Also available in French and German
o - Travel advice by country -- U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
o - US Travel Information -- US Department of State country information for travellers. The International Travel Information box links to travel warnings
and travel alerts.
o - Country Watch --
o - DMS Forecast International -- File 589.
o - Globus & NTDB -- Part of Stats-USA, for federal, business, trade, and economic information. Lots of links to country reports, background notes
on countries etc.
o - Jane's Sentinel -- United Kingdom
o - Amnesty International's Library -- This website contains news; features; actions; video and audio; information about countries, campaigns and issues. Amnesty
International also produces hundreds of reports, press releases, appeals for action and newsletters each year and these are
available in the Library. Also contains a link to the latest Annual report of the world's human rights situation.
o - Human Rights Watch (HRW) --
o - Area studies -- Richard Kimber. Bibliography of links to country and government information for political science (40 main sites) + links
to individual countries (general info, constitution, elections etc.). Part of Political Science Resources.
o - Country Links -- By Jim Vileta, links to other sites with country information. Very extensive, about 10 to 20 links per country.
o - Encyclopedia of the Nations -- detailed information about 193 countries, the United Nations and associated agencies and World Leaders.
o - Index Mundi -- IndexMundi is a data portal that gathers facts and statistics from multiple sources and turns them into easy to use visuals.
Source is mainly CIA WFB
o - OneWorld -- Publishes OneWorld Guides, Country Guides and Topic Guides regarding developing countries.
o - Open Directory Project -- Listing of information on about every country in the world, arranged by region and country.
Mainly government information on the Internet, including world leaders. Also consider country information
Introduction: All the following are mostly in Dutch language only.
o - Officiele bekendmakingen -- All official parliamentary documentation from 1995-now: Staatsblad, Staatcourant, Handelingen, Tractatenblad, etc. Full text,
searchable full text, by title, doc numbers, period, format and more. In Dutch. See Staten-Generaal digitaal for the period 1814-1995.
o - Overheid.nl -- General portal giving access to all information from Dutch Government and official Dutch government institutions. In Dutch.
o - Overheid.nl : de wegwijzer naar informatie en diensten van alle overheden -- ''Government organisations''. Dutch language addressbook listing government bodies, all government organisations, as well
as counties, municipalities and semi government bodies. Very complete and up to date. Part of 'Overheid.nl'.
o - Parlement & Politiek -- University Leiden, Parliamentary Documentation Center. Information on dutch politics and players. Mainly devoted to the backgrouns
of NL politics.
o - Staten-Generaal Digitaal -- ''Parlementaire documenten uit de periode 1814-1995''. Official Dutch parliamentary documentation from 1814-1995. Full text,
searching by titlewords, full-text, doc numbers, dates. See Officiele bekendmakingen for the period 1995-now. In Dutch.
o - Wet- en regelgeving -- In Dutch. Access to Dutch laws, treaties, policy papers, decisions, regulations etc. Full-text. Including counties and city
Introduction: Access to common laws and regulations regarding the European Union.
o - EUR-Lex -- Access to European Union Law, covering agreements, directives, regulations and decisions. With links to the EU budget, parliamentary
o - European Commission Library and E-resources -- Online library catalogue, full access. Also to full text online available documents
o - European Council - Council of the European Union --
o - European Union -- Official website of the European Union
o - Official documents -- Links to Offical Journal, European Parliament, European Council, Council of the European Union, European Commission, European
External Action Service, and all other main EU institutions.
o - GOA Government Accountability Office --
o - USA.gov -- Successor to FedWorld.gov. Very large single entry site to USA government.
o - Heads of state, heads of government, and ministers for foreign affairs -- UN Protocol and Liaison service. Ordered by country, lists the head of state, head of government and minister of foreign affairs.
o - Rulers -- "...contains lists of heads of state and heads of government (and, in certain cases, de facto leaders not occupying either
of those formal positions) of all countries and territories, going back to about 1700 in most cases. Also included are the
subdivisions of various countries [...], as well as a selection of international organizations. Recent foreign ministers of
all countries are listed separately.". Also religious leaders, international organizations, and biographies with pictures.
o - World Leaders -- Successor to Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments. CIA, U.S. Lists the names and functions of cabinets
and other important government members of all countries in the world. Including representatives to the UN, ambassadors to
the USA and the heads of central banks.
o - World political leaders -- Roberto Ortiz de Zarate. International listings, all countries, of leaders from 1945 up. Lists former political parties, current
political parties, royalty, prime ministers with dates and political party, some ministers and chairmen of chambers, chairman
o - WorldLeaderTwitterDirectory -- Detailed directory of world leaders from (inter)national governments and international organisations on Twitter. Mentioning
twitter accounts, names, organisations, websites and more. Excellent work.
o - Embassy world -- Listing of the world countries and per country its worldwide embassies.
o - Governments on the WWW -- Last change 2002. Comprehensive database of governmental institutions on the World Wide Web: parliaments, ministries, offices,
law courts, embassies, city councils, public broadcasting corporations, central banks, multi-governmental institutions etc.
Includes also political parties. Online since June 1995. Contains more than 17000 entries from more than 220 countries and
territories as of June 2002
o - Political resources on the net -- Political resources per country: parties, governments, elections, history, and much more. With references to many (inter)
national political websites.
o - Worldwide Embassy Database --
o - Foreign governments on the Web -- Not there anymore.
o - International documents --
Here is a modest attempt to give no more than 10 search tips that in general should help any searcher improve search results.
The term 'recall' is the total number of hits retrieved, the term 'relevance' is the number of hits considered relevant by
the searcher. Best tip of all: ask your local librarian!
Use more than one search engine
-- Use at least three single search engines to get a reasonable coverage of whats out there. Search engines typically only
cover a small part of the Net.
Use AND to increase relevance
-- Use an AND operator to significantly reduce recall and at the same time increase relevance. Be carefull how to write AND in different search engines. (Type a space in most search engines).
Use OR to include synonyms
-- Use the OR operator in the search and to significantly increase recall at the expense of relevance. (Type OR in capitals
in most search engines).
-- When looking for keywords to search with, use different spellings, abbreviations, translations, synonyms, plural, singular,
truncation (Exalead!) etc. Use professional terms when looking for 'professional' information, use popular terms vv.
Use NOT to exlude unwanted terms
-- Use the NOT operator to exclude unwanted terms from the results. (Type a dash "-" in most search engines.
Consider web directories
-- Consider using some of the larger web directories if you are unsure about search terms, want tips about experts, or
an introduction to a certain subject.
Consider meta search engines
-- Use meta search engines as a last resort if none of the major search engines do not produce the results you want.
Use field names to restrict your search
-- Use field names to significantly increase relevance and lower recall. Use intitle: to search for titlewords only, use site: to search in a particular domain, use filetype: to search for particular document formats.
Consider using Serial search engines
-- Use one of the Serial Search Engines to quickly search more than one single search engine in succession without having
to retype the query.
Use library catalogs
-- When searching for validated, high quality information with good coverage, use one or more online library catalogues.
Use a library loan system to have your librarian borrow the books for you.
Some sources that me be useful to keep track of Internet sources, search tactics, search tools, important developments on
the Internet for searchers, and the like.
o - D-Lib magazine -- Bimonthly, for techies, focus on digital library research and development, including but not limited to new technologies,
applications, and contextual social and economic issues. The magazine is currently published six times a year. Free, RSS service.
o - Information Today -- On news and long term trends in the information industry, monthly, fee-based. A few articles per issue are for free.
o - Logical Tips computing Ezine -- Susan Daffron. Tips for using commonly known hardware, software and services such as email.
o - Online : Exploring Technology & Resources for Information Professionals -- "...for information professionals and provides articles, product reviews, case studies, evaluation, and informed opinion about
selecting, using, and managing electronic information products, plus industry and professional information about online database
systems, CD-ROM, and the Internet". Fee based, some articles per issue are for free.
o - Search Engine Guide -- "The small business guide to search marketing". Free, RSS and subscription service.
o - Search Engine Showdown Blog -- Greg Notess. Infrequently updated, but very important.
o - Searcher : the Magazine for Database Professionals -- "...explores and deliberates on a comprehensive range of issues important to the professional database searcher. The magazine
is targeted to experienced, knowledgeable searchers and combines evaluations of data content with discussions of delivery
media. Searcher includes evaluated online news, searching tips and techniques, reviews of search aid software and database
documentation, revealing interviews with leaders and entrepreneurs of the industry, and trenchant editorials."
o - Tales from the Terminal Room -- Karen Blakeman. "...free newsletter for anyone who uses electronic media, and particularly the Internet, for locating information.
Content includes reviews and comparisons of information sources; updates on business information resources; dealing with technical
and access problems; and news of RBA’s training courses and publications". Free, subscription and RSS service.
o - The COOK report on Internet protocol -- ''Technology, economics and policy. A practical navigator for the Internet economy.'' Bimonthly, fee-based. Some articles
o - Bibliotech -- In Dutch, aimed at the University library Utrecht.
|internet research news
o - Cops in cyberspace Blog -- "...over politie en opsporing en internet". By Rene Leijen, Dutch Police Academy. In Dutch, great collection of security related
news, security incidents, Internet crime and the like. Free subscription and RSS services.
o - Google Inside Search blog -- The official Google search blog.
o - Google Operating System -- ''Unofficial news and tips about Google''. Sometimes published undocumented features about Google search.
o - HOAX.blog.nl -- In Dutch. About hoax messages and the impact of them.
o - Internet News -- "Articles and news about web searching and internet use, includes search tools, online news, email, current awareness tools,
and general use". RSS service.Free. Part of the Web Search Guide. Canadian.
o - John Battelle's Blog -- Free, with RSS and subscription service.
o - Karen Blakeman's Blog -- Slightly more up to date then the TFTTR.
o - Librarian of Fortune -- Mary Ellen Bates
o - Peter Scott's Library Blog --
o - Phil Bradley's Blog --
o - ResearchBuzz -- Tara Calishain. "News about search engines, databases, and other information collections". Free, subscription and RSS services.
o - Search Engine Roundtable -- Discusses changes in the major search engines from a SEO perspective. Have a section on Google pagerank and algortihm changes.
o - SearchReSearch -- ''A blog about search, search skills, teaching search, learning how to search, learning how to use Google effectively, learning
how to do research. It also covers a good deal of sensemaking and information foraging.''. By Daniel Russell.
o - The Official Google Blog -- Free, with RSS and subscription service.
o - WebProNews -- Journal on web search engines developments and trends.
o - Internet Resources Newsletter --
o - Netsurfer Digest --
o - ResourceShelf (Gary Price) --
o - Scout Report --
o - Track guide --
o - About.com Websearch -- Wendy Boswell
o - CyberSkeptic's guide to Internet Research --
o - Greg Notess --
o - Phil Bradley's website -- On Internet search and web design.
o - Ran Hock --
o - Search Engine Land -- Danny Sullivan. News about search and WWW, with a strong focus on business and SEO.
o - Search Engine Watch (Chris Sherman) --
o - Security.nl -- In Dutch.
o - Voelspriet -- Henk van Ess. Dutch language, fee based.
o - Web Search Guide -- "...The Web Search Guide is about web searching, web strategies and tools from a Canadian perspective."
o - WebWereld -- In Dutch.
| o - Internet Society (ISOC) -- Home of the IETF and others. ISOC is the organisation that controls it all.
o - IANA -- "The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has authority over all number spaces used in the Internet, including IP address
space. IANA allocates public Internet address space to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) according to their established
needs." IANA IPv4 Address Space Registry
o - ICANN -- Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. "ICANN is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet's system
of unique identifiers. These include domain names (like .org, .museum and country codes like .UK), as well as the addresses
used in a variety of Internet protocols. ICANN was supposed to replace IANA.
Introduction: There are five RIR's worldwide, all serving the same purpose. Most RIR's have the same goal: "...provides Internet resource
allocations, registration services and co-ordination activities that support the operation of the Internet globally.". In
general, look for a link 'Database' for the WHOIS services. Search for Reports or Statistics to get the allocation tables.
o - APNIC -- Asia Pacific Network Information Centre. See the allocation listing.
o - ARIN -- American Registry for Internet Numbers. Covers Canada, Caribbean and North Atlantic islands, and the United States
o - AfriNIC -- Africa Network Information Centre. See resources list for distribution.
o - LACNIC --
o - RIPE NCC -- Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre. Serves Europe, the Middle East and parts of Asia, see the Service Region. See allocation table for allocations of addresses to countries. Operates the k.root-servers.net.
Introduction: The explanations by Karrenberg are excellent, aimed at the beginner, non-technician.
o - DNS Root Name Servers Explained For Non-Experts -- by Daniel Karrenberg, ISOC, 2007
o - DNS Root Name Servers Frequently Asked Questions -- by Daniel Karrenberg, ISOC, 2008
o - Full list of ccTLD and gTLD --
o - Overview generic top level domains -- ICANN
o - The Internet Domain Name System Explained for Non-Experts -- by Daniel Karrenberg, ISOC, 2004
Some useful image search sites, as well as two reverse image search engines.
o - Google images -- Most usefull source.
Introduction: The (currently) main single search engines all have image search, with almost spectecular differences in search results.
o - Bing images --
o - Flickr -- Yahoo. Photographs only. Geotagging, blogging, personal pages. Very large.
o - Instagram -- Owned by Facebook. Mobile version only.
o - Picasa Web Album -- Google. Photo sharing, making albums. Also free client Picasa 3 for downloading to organize your own photo's..
o - Picsearch -- 3 Bn pictures
o - Tiltomo -- "...uses proprietary algorithms (mathematical calculations) to analyze the similarity and relationship between images.". Experimental.
Based on Flickr. Also see TinEye
o - Yahoo images --
o - Google Images -- Reverse image search. Drag a picture in the search bar to start a search. Does not lead to any useful results though. Yet.
o - TinEye reverse image search -- ''TinEye is a reverse image search engine. You can submit an image to TinEye to find out where it came from, how it is being
used, if modified versions of the image exist, or to find higher resolution versions. TinEye [uses] image identification technology
rather than keywords, metadata or watermarks.'' Also see Tiltomo
o - BestPicturesOf -- Produced by Webcellence (Jerusalem, Israel). Uses Bing, Google and Flickr to search for images, photos, illustrations and
caricatures. This site is equivalent to Zuula picture search.
o - How to find images on the Internet -- Directory of links to image search sites, also maps. Covering general purposes sites, press, museums, commercial sources,
art, science, medical images, etc.
o - Ditto --
Free and fee-based journals.
o - African Journals Online (AJOL) -- "...over 340 peer-reviewed journals from 25 African countries. These journals cover the full range of academic disciplines
with strong sections on health, education, agriculture, science and technology, the environment, and arts and culture.
o - Directory of Open Access Journals -- "...covers free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals". About 4100 journals and 270000 articles.
Good subject tree. Search articles or journals, on subject, title or author.
o - Dutch list --
o - Electronic Journal Title Index --
o - Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek -- "...ist ein kooperativer Service von 503 Bibliotheken mit dem Ziel, ihren Nutzern einen einfachen und komfortablen Zugang
zu elektronisch erscheinenden wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriften zu bieten. Aufgenommen werden alle Zeitschriften, die Artikel
im Volltext anbieten."
o - HighWire Press -- Stanford University. 71 of the 200 most-frequently-cited journals publishing in science. [...] full-text life science articles
in the world, with 1,892,462 articles available without subscription. Also fee based articles. Good search possibilities,
alerts, Good for international relations.
o - John Labovitz list --
o - LivRe! -- Brazil. Portal to free access journals on the Internet, about 3600 journals. Mainly beta sciences.
o - Newslink --
o - Open J-Gate -- "...indexes articles from 4547 academic, research and industry journals.[...] 2580 of them are peer-reviewed scholarly journals.".
Links to 1m articles, growth about 300k per year
o - Magazines for Libraries -- LaGuardia, Cheryl, ed., with Bill and Linda Sternberg Katz. 17th ed. New York: Bowker, 2003.
"...An annotated listing by subject of over 6,000 periodicals. Each entry gives name of periodical, beginning publication
date, publisher, editor, address, price and such information as indexing, size, and level of audience. Short abstracts describe
the scope, political slant, and other aspects of the publication. Arrangement is topical, bringing magazines and journals
on like subjects together. To find an individual title, use the title index at the end of the volume."
| o - Ethnologue -- International. Describes for each country in the world the languages spoken.
o - Eulex --
o - Europol --
o - Interpol --
o - Drug Enforcement Agency DEA --
o - Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI --
o - Eulex --
o - Law Library of Congress Serbia --
o - OSCE Mission to Serbia : law enforcement --
o - World Legal Information Institute -- Catalog and search facilities for over 500 databases from 55 countries including case-law, legislation, treaties, law reform
reports, law journals, and other materials
o - Police magazine --
o - Alarmeringen P2000 -- Real-time notices for police, amnbulance and firebrigade. Per county and city.
o - P2000 meldingen -- Real-time notices plus date and time, service and descriptons.
o - Politiebronnen -- Rechercheren in open bronnen. In Dutch.
o - Politiescanner.net -- Notices for/by police with service, date/time, region, target and message. With urgency annotation.
o - CopNET.org --
o - CopSeek -- Police and Law Enforcement search engine and directory
o - Crime spider -- "...best crime and law enforcement sites and categorized topics. ... on criminalistics, forensic anthropology, FBI, unsolved
murders, homicide investigation techniques, child abuse, domestic violence, the death penalty, terrorism, criminal justice,
law and courts, behavioral profiling, gang violence, juvenile crime, missing persons, serial killers or mass murderers, criminals,
police, crime scene photos, ..."
o - Officer.com Directory of agencies -- links to law enforcement agency websites international, covering the USA and all other countries (see International Agencies).
o - Refdesk.com -- Facts encyclopedia Crime and law enforcement.
General and special purpose maps. Also consider country information categories, as well as transport.
o - CIA Maps -- Three types of maps for most countries:
Administrative maps contain information about national boundaries, capitals and administrative divisions.
Physiographic maps identify bodies of water, deserts, mountains, historic sites, archaeological sites, elevation points and plains
Transportation maps show international boundaries, expressways, roads, railroads, canals and major airports.
o - Perry Castaneda library map colection -- Large, regularly updated, many simple country and city maps, sometimes surprisingly detailed. Maps of current interest on
top, with references to maps on other sites. Very useful.
o - ReliefWeb maps and updates -- Great map service, often very detailed and up to date maps of crises areas.
o - United Nations Cartographic Section -- Offers General Maps by region or country. You can also choose to view UN Mission Maps. Maps are in PDF.
o - United Nations Map Library -- The Map Collection houses over 80,000 maps, some 3,000 atlases, gazetteers, travel guides, reference works and digital products.
o - Bing map NL -- Aerial view and birs eye view.
o - Funda -- Broker of rental and purchase houses. For each house maps, pictures, and 3D impressions.
o - Google map NL -- With streetview, satellite view. Fairly detailed satellite images.
o - Kadaster PDOK -- Kadaster 'Publieke Dienstverlening op de Kaart', in Dutch, maps and geodatasets of The Netherlands, downloadable, free.
o - Standard time zones of the world -- World map wit indications of time zones in UTC.
o - Time Zone Abbreviations – Worldwide List -- Alphabetical listing of the world time zone abbreviations with full name, location and UTC offset.
o - EastView GeoSpatial -- Topographic maps, geological maps, nautical maps, imagery. International, global coverage. All infor originating from the
former USSR. Very large. Fee based
o - MapQuest -- Does not hold as many features as Google Maps. Offers nevertheless a nice alternative. Check the new feature "Travel Blogs".
o - Maps.com -- Commercial provider of mapping products
o - OpenStreetMap -- ''OpenStreetMap is a free editable map of the whole world. OpenStreetMap allows you to view, edit and use geographical data
in a collaborative way from anywhere on Earth. ''
o - Travel Journals --
o - WikiMapia -- Which is as suggested a combination between a Wiki and satellite imagery. With some moderator functionality and links to unblurred
o - World Map Collections -- "...are a cooperative project of several public and private universities of Florida and the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection to make digitized modern and antique maps available on the Web. The Florida and Caribbean collections are particularly
strong, but Africa, the Americas, and the Middle East are also represented."
Introduction: Combinations of (mostly) maps and some other data combined into 'new' information.
o - Directory of Mashups -- Coldbeans. Mainly Twitter mashups.
o - Mapmakerpedia -- Google Wiki site about crowdsourced maps.
o - Mashups Directory -- Listing of the latest mashups
o - The World's News on Google Maps -- Nice example of a useful mashup
o - Twitter trends -- Plotting trending topics on Google maps.
Introduction: Consider travel shops, outdoor shops, that typically have a book shop as well with excellent map departments.
o - Geografische boekhandel Jacob van Wijngaarden --
o - David Rumsey Map Collection -- The historical map collection has over 30,000 maps and images online. The collection focuses on rare 18th and 19th century
North American and South American maps and other cartographic materials. Historic maps of the World, Europe, Asia, and Africa
are also represented.
o - Index Mundi -- Historical maps only, fairly limited in scope.
o - Old Maps Online -- This portal provides access to a collection of historical maps in libraries around the world. Choose an area of your interest
and narrow by date.
o - Bing maps -- Not as detailed as Google's, but has a very useful birdseye view.
o - Google maps -- With route planner.
o - ANWB routeplanner Europa -- Very good planner, covering Europe, with route and maps. The route has references to the map. The layout is easier to use
then the one of RouteNET.
o - RAC Route planner -- Covering Europe,
o - RouteNET -- Beautiful planner, with good maps and very detailed descriptions. Excellent. The route has references to the map. Covers Europe.
o - ViaMichelin -- Covering Europe, with pictures of the signposts to follow.
o - the AA .com -- Covers the UK, Ireland and Europe, but you can't get from Europe to the UK or vv.
o - MapBlast! -- Now redirects to Bing Maps
o - Roelf Oddens Maps -- No longer available.
Health information related to individual trauma, country health information as well as disaster relief and early response.
o - Country health profiles -- For Africa
o - Landelijk Coordinatiecentrum Reizigersadvies LCR -- In Dutch. O.a. Landenlijst en nieuws met informatie over vaccinaties en antimalaria aanbevelingen
o - Mednar -- Deep Web Technologies. Federated, deep web search engine that returns results in real time from multiple sources. Also see
the description with Biznar.
o - ReliefWeb -- NGO aggregator. Must use. "...the world’s leading on-line gateway to information (documents and maps) on humanitarian emergencies
and disasters. An independent vehicle of information, designed specifically to assist the international humanitarian community
in effective delivery of emergency assistance, it provides timely, reliable and relevant information as events unfold, while
emphasizing the coverage of "forgotten emergencies" at the same time. ReliefWeb was launched in October 1996 and is administered
by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)."
o - Yahoo Travel Health and Medicine -- Yahoo directory
o - EMM MedISys -- Aggregator for medical news, from the European Media Monitor.
o - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention --
o - World Health Organization -- United Nations. "...responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting
norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and
assessing health trends."
o - Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System -- "...provides near real-time alerts about natural disasters around the world and tools to facilitate response coordination,
including media monitoring, map catalogues and Virtual On-Site Operations Coordination Centre."
o - Global Disaster Map RSOE EDIS -- Worldwide alert map, by the Emergency and Disaster Information Service (EDIS), Budapest, Hungary.
o - Global disaster watch -- Monitoring natural disasters: climate change, cyclones, drought, earthquakes, flooding, freak waves, hurricanes, landslides,
meteor strikes, mystery booms/skyquakes, pandemics, record-breaking disasters, solar flares, space weather, tropical storms,
tsunamis, volcanoes, unusual animal behavior, weather extremes, wildfires; disaster archives from 1998-present.
o - National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI) -- Formerly 'Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC)', based in Fort Detrick (MD). Now only available via Intelink-U,
which is for .gov or .mil domains only. Others need an account.
o - Medline -- US National Library of medicine. Made up of Index Medicus, Index to Dental Literature. Free. PubMed is basically Medline with
a little extra.
o - MedlinePlus --
o - PubMed -- US National Library of medicine. The "free" and very usefull version of Medline. Free. The advanced version of the database offers most options.
o - EmBase -- Elsevier. Exerpta Medica. 18 million biomedical bibliographic records from 1974 to present, with 500.000 additions per annum.
Competitor to Medline.
Clever use of a search engine enable finding music quickly and easy. Try intitle:"index of" /mp3 OR /wma songtitle to find lists of songs from your favourite composer.
Introduction: For downloading or streaming music.
o - Clickster -- is a MP3 search engine client looking for music in websites.
o - LastSharp -- SoftTonic. Little tool that will download music in the background from www.last.fm. The latter one will stream music on genre
or category, LastSharp will then store the music. Alternative for LastSharp is No23 recorder.
o - Agence France Presse -- Most prestigious wire agency, but one.
o - BBC --
o - Reuters -- Most prestigious wire agency in the world.
o - Agence France Presse -- Most prestigious wire agency, but one.
o - The Press Trust of India -- National press agency of India.
Introduction: The general press wire service of The NL is ANP, which is fee-based.
o - NOS --
o - RNW International -- Radio Netherlands International. World service.
o - Teletekst --
o - Al-Jazeerah --
o - XINHUA --
o - Interfax -- InterFax international information group. Covers Russia, China and Eurasia. Offers about 100 information services in weekly
and daily intelligence reports. Fee-based.
o - BBC --
o - Reuters -- Most prestigious wire agency in the world.
o - Reuters Today --
o - AP -- Via TBO. Top International news.
o - Bloomberg News -- Business news service. Markets and developments. Large, reliable. Also many commercial options for local solutions: desktop
research, news integration, trend analysis etc.
o - CNN -- Owned by Warner Bross, famous for comedy productions.
o - RFE/RL --
o - 1stHeadlines --
o - AlertNet -- Reuters Foundation.
o - Google --
o - IRIN -- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Humanitarian news and analysis
o - MSN/NBC --
o - News now.co.uk -- Indexes thousands of news sites on the Internet. Focusses on news content, and updates live every few minutes. Also has sophisticated
filtering technology which uses a combination of keywords and meta data to filter links to articles into hundreds of newsfeed
o - Yahoo! News -- world news
o - topix -- "...links news from 50,000 sources to 360,000 lively user-generated forums. Topix also works with the nation's major media
companies to grow and engage their online audiences through forums, classifieds, publishing platforms and RSS feeds."
o - Europe Media Monitor (EMM) -- News aggregator en clustering service, developed by the Joint Research Center. Offers a
EMM NewsBrief with all the news clustered by frequency, themes, and a timeline, and a
EMM NewsExplorer offering the news for all official languages, clustered, with reference to countries and people. Use EMM MedISys for medical news analyses. Free.
o - Silobreaker -- Silobreaker Ltd, London UK/Stockholm. Internet news crawler and aggregator with many tools and functionalities to help analyse
developments: keywords, authority files, meta data, frequency tables of events, persons, network analysis, biographies. Personalisation
of pages, and much more. Fee based, consider using EMM. Very good and easy to use. Originally by Infosphere, Sweden.
o - 10x10 -- Useless, but fun, and a great idea. "10x10™ ('ten by ten') is an interactive exploration of the words and pictures that define
the time. The result is an often moving, sometimes shocking, occasionally frivolous, but always fitting snapshot of our world.
Every hour, 10x10 collects the 100 words and pictures that matter most on a global scale, and presents them as a single image,
taken to encapsulate that moment in time."
o - Frankfurter Allgemeine --
o - Guardian --
o - Washington Post --
o - Financial Times --
o - Guardian --
o - The Independent --
o - The Times --
Introduction: The best Belgian newspapers, with a few aggregators and a link to Belgian magazines.
o - De Standaard -- Quality Dutch Language Belgian newspaper
o - De Tijd -- Mainly Financial news. Dutch language.
o - Grenz Echo -- Quality German language Belgian Newspaper
o - Guide Presse -- French directory that lists French newspapers and magazines.
o - Krantenkoppen.be -- Belgian Headlines Aggregation site. Hyperlinked articles from 15 Belgian Newspapers (12 NL, 3 FR). Also includes foreign (non-Belgian)
o - Le Soir -- Quality French language Belgian newspaper
o - MO* -- Belgian magazines. MO* focuses on third world countries. Available in 4 languages: Dutch, Spanish, English and French.
o - Christian Science Monitor --
o - International New York Times -- Formerly the International Herald Tribune. Changed October 2013.
o - New York Times --
o - Washington Post --
o - Washington Times --
o - Le Figaro --
o - Le Monde --
o - Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung --
o - Suddeutsche Zeitung --
o - Neue Zurcher Zeitung -- ch.
Introduction: Also see The Press in Italy (BBC) for a critical overview of the Italian news.
o - Corriere della Sera --
o - La Repubblica --
o - La Stampa --
o - El Pais --
Introduction: Also see The press in Russia (BBC) for a critical review of the Russian press.
o - Izvestia --
o - Kommersant --
o - Komsomolskaya Pravda -- russia.
Introduction: First choice: NRC
o - Algemeen Dagblad --
o - Hoofdnieuws -- In Dutch. Main news headlines of several Dutch newspapers and wires, each in its own frame. Categorized in tabs. With filtering.
Based on Rnews RSS Atom feed aggregator.
o - NRC Handelsblad --
o - Telegraaf --
o - Volkskrant --
o - Google CSE Newspapers -- Searches major international newspapers only, sorted by publication date.
Introduction: Use any of the following links to find global newspapers. Favourites are Web Wombat and secondly IPL Online Newspapers.
o - ABYZ News Links -- Newspapers and newsmedia guide. International.
o - All the world's newspapers -- Web Wombat Pty, Australia. International in scope, covers thousands digital newspapers. Browsing by country, region. Coverage
o - Kidon MEDIA link -- About 20.000 newspapers and other newssources. International, arranged by country.
o - MetagrId newspapers & magazines -- Covers about 8000 newspapers and online magazines arranged by country and category.
o - NewsCentral -- USA. Links to more than 3500 online newspapers. Arranged by region, with separate link to college newspapers. Very small coverage,
much less then Wombat and Newslink.. For Africa, only three countries are listed.
o - NewsLink.org -- Newspapers, magazines, radio/tv and resources
o - NewsWealth.com -- Newspaper directory for USA and international. Also tabloids, US magazines, US radio and live Internet TV channels.
o - Newslink newspapers -- International, arranged by region or state. Also by category. Coverage is less than Wombat, but reasonable.
o - Online newspapers -- Part of the Internet Public Library (IPL), lists titles per region and country. Pretty extensive, second to Wombat.
o - ICVA -- International Council of Voluntary Agencies. ICVA is a global network of non-governmental organisations.
o - Idealist.org -- Idealist aims at connecting people and organisations with a keen interest in voluntary work. Search for jobs, events, etc.
o - UN DPI NGO dir -- UN Department of Public Information for NGO
o - WANGO -- The World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations (WANGO) is an international organization uniting NGOs worldwide.
o - Worldwide NGO Directory -- Provided by WANGO. Browse by region (to see a list of NGOs working in that region) or Search using keywords, mission, area
of focus, country, region, (down to adress level)
Most of these also publish full text reports on all kinds of subjects in the field of international relations. The 'R' links
to full text reports, the 'J' links to journals/newsletters.
o - International Crisis Group -- International, main office in Brussels, BL. Excellent reports, full text. Monthly Crisis Watch.
o - International Security Network -- Must read. Very good selection of reports and essays, a fact database (FIRST)
, links to other think tanks and lists of abbreviations / acronyms.
o - International Atomic Energy Agency --
o - International Strategic Studies Association (ASSA) -- Washington DC. Publishes the Defense & Foreign Affairs Handbook.
o - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs --
o - Center for Contemporary Conflict -- US Navy.
R, Strategic Insights.
o - Center for Defence and International Security Studies --
o - Center for Defense Information --
o - Center for Nonproliferation Studies --
Part of MIIS, Monterey CA, USA.
o - Center for Peace and Security Studies --
o - Center for Strategic and International Studies -- (US, Washington).
o - Council on Foreign Relations --
o - Council on Foreign Relations --
o - Instituut Clingendael -- Based in The Hague, The Netherlands. In Dutch.
o - International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) -- Excellent source of top quality reports. Based in London UK, published ao Military Balance, Strategic Survey, Survival, Armed
Conflict Database. Publications available through Taylor & Francis.
o - John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies --
o - Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) --
o - Amnesty International --
o - Berliner Zentrum fur Internationale Friedenseinsatze --
o - CATO Institute --
o - Congressional Research Service --
o - DEMOS --
o - Energy Information Agency --
o - European Union --
o - GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit -- GTZ supports the German Government in achieving its development-policy objectives for political, economic, ecological and
social development in a globalised world.
o - Human Rights Watch --
o - ICRC --
o - IMF --
o - IWPR --
o - InterPol --
o - Interkerkelijk Vredesberaad --
o - NATO --
o - National Intelligence Council --
o - Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie --
o - OHR --
o - OSCE --
o - Peace and Conflict --
o - ReliefWeb --
o - Silk Road Studies Program --
o - The Brookings Institution --
o - Transnational Institute -- TNI is an international network of activist-scholars committed to critical analyses of the global problems of today and tomorrow.
o - USAid --
o - United Nations --
o - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime -- UNODC is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime. Important publication: World Drug Report.
o - United Nations UNHCR --
o - WEU --
o - Weatherhead Center for International Affairs (Harvard Univ.) --
o - World Bank --
o - World Trade Organisation --
o - Electronic Privacy Information Centre (EPIC) -- ''EPIC is a public interest research center in Washington, D.C. It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging
civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values. EPIC publishes [...] the EPIC
Alert [cut] reports and even books about privacy, open government, free speech, and other important topics related to civil
o - COOP --
o - Ken Davies list --
o - Marburg Universitaet --
o - Yahoo listing --
Most are commercial, providing images with watermarks for free.
o - EastView GeoSpatial -- Topographic maps, geological maps, nautical maps, imagery. International, global coverage. All infor originating from the
former USSR. Very large. Fee based
o - FlashEarth -- Flash-based, zoomable map of the world using satellite and aerial imagery from several mapping websites
o - Google Earth -- Comes as a client, with two commercial variations.
o - MapMart -- MapMart offers a variety of high, medium and low resolution satellite imagery datasets for nearly every location on the earth.
o - SIC -- Satellite Imagery Corporation.
o - TerraServer --
o - WikiMapia -- Which is as suggested a combination between a Wiki and satellite imagery. With some moderator functionality and links to unblurred
o - GlobeXplorer -- Image site.
o - SpaceImagery --
Some of the more general networks, although there are thousands of them. Also consider the special social networks devoted
to sharing video (YouTube), music (Imeem) or photo's (flickr), as well as Usenet, Listserv's and forums. NEW 1jun2015: moved
SocM search engines to 'social media search engines' under 'search engines.'
o - Facebook -- Most popular one, more then 1.2 billion accounts. Popular info only, family affairs, groups, unions, hobby's and general interest.
o - LinkedIn -- Aimed at business users to find peers, competitors, jobs, opportunities, experts.
o - Twitter -- Mini blogging network, useful for monitoring trends, news. Real-time. With the search engine at search.twitter.com. Also try Twitter Trendsmap.
o - World Map of Social Networks -- Published twice a year (June and December). Also offers the older maps so you can see the conquest of Facebook for world domination.
See what other networks are used in the world. Lists the top 3 per country.
o - Foursquare -- checkin, checkout, check check.
o - Google Plus -- Google's challenger to Facebook. If you have a Google account, you automatically have a Google Plus profile. Hardly used anymore
o - MySpace -- People, Music, Videos and Radio. Searchable.
o - PasteBin -- "..store text for a certain period of time. [...] mainly used by programmers to store pieces of sources code or configuration
information [...]. The idea behind the site is to make it more convenient for people to share large amounts of text online."
Often used by international hacker groups to post press messages or hacked/leaked information.
o - Pinterest -- Pin interesting stuff on your wall. More and more being used to share articles and used as an RSS reader.
o - Plaxo -- Mainly an online addressbook that automatically syncs and updates your contact information.
o - Reddit -- Social News service. Users can post content in a link or by self written text. Other users then vote the post "up" or "down"
to determine the ranking on the front page. Also searchable.
o - WaarBenJij -- Eng.: Where Are You (now). For sharing online diaries made by people who are on the road, on travel, on holiday etc. Intended
for travellers who wish to update the home front on there whereabouts. About 265.000 accounts, and 2.6 million travel stories.
o - Hootsuite -- Monitoring and managing multiple social media (Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, Foursquare etc.), based on keywords. Also see
Monitter.com. Tweetdeck lookalikes.
o - Netvibes -- Create your own dashboard to monitor your topic of interest or search using keywords.
o - Tweetdeck -- Owned by Twitter, real-time updates for Twitter, Facebook. Also posting. Web-based only. Bought Seismic. Alternatives: Hootsuite,
Introduction: Some tools to use multiple social networks more effectively, such as browser plugins or specialised SN browsers. WARNING:
most free services demand access rights to your profiles that may be too much for you.
o - Klout -- Measures the influence of users on SN, calculating a 'Klout score'.
o - RockMelt SN browser -- Supports Facebook and Twitter. Requires a Facebook account to sign in.
o - The Tweeted Times -- Personalised, real-time newspaper based on your Twitter account. Searchable for other Tweeted newspapers.
o - Tweetdeck -- Owned by Twitter, real-time updates for Twitter, Facebook. Also posting. Web-based only. Bought Seismic. Alternatives: Hootsuite,
o - Twitterfall -- A waterfall-style of tweets. Add a search term and tweets start falling down. Each Search gets a different colour in the "waterfall"
making it easy to follow. Hover over a tweet to pause the falling. Search options include: Lists, Search terms (with or without
hashtags), Geolocation. You can also exclude terms, services and users from your search. Must take a look at the Feature page. Requires a login with your Twitter account.
o - gremLn -- Management tool for multiple social media.
o - Contaxio beta -- Analyses of followings and followers on Twitter of your own account only..
o - FollowerMonk -- Analyse followers. WARNING: wants to update profile and post tweets.
o - OpinionCrawl -- Online sentiment analysis tool for current events, companies, products and people. Search news or Twitter.
o - SnapBird -- Search Twitter history, as far as Twitter allows you to.
o - Social Mention -- Provides a social media search and analysis service, sentiment analysis, top keywords used, top users, real-time.
o - TweetStats -- Takes a username to return statistics on number of tweets over time, tweet density, daily/hourly tweets, interface used, replies
and retweets. 11feb14: Very slow, non functional.
o - Twirus -- Trending topics on Twitter, in the Netherlands only.
o - Twitonomy -- Powerful Twitter analytics tool. Analyse any Twitter account, except private ones.Provides backup capabilities.
o - Twitter counter -- Publishes a timeline graph plitting the number of followers, following, tweets over time. WARNING: needs access to your profile
and wants to post tweets for you. Also try Twenty Feet (registration required).
o - Twopcharts -- Stats data on Twitter users: dozens of different answers to questions on number of tweets, first tweets, followers, mentions,
lists, retweets, etc.
o - Who tweeted it first -- Finds the first tweet on a topic or keyword. Slow.
o - TweetPing -- Global, real-time map of tweets. Tweets flash and leave, counters below the map do calculations and show hashtags.
o - TwitterMap -- Accepts a keyword and plots the geo location of tweeters on a map.
o - Search Twitter -- Official Twitter search engine. The list of operators is just below the search box
o - TweeterID -- Twitter ID and username converter. Find the Twitter handle for a Twitter ID, or, find a Twitter ID for a Twitter handle. Search
on a Twitter ID: twitter.com/intent/user?user_id=16600244
o - Twitter --
o - 5k Twitter Browser -- By Neuro Productions. Takes a username to graphically display the network of followers. Very slow.
o - Followerwonk -- Analyse Twitter accounts and their followers/following.
o - MentionMap -- A Twitter visualisation tool, displaying the mentions and hashtags used the most in recent tweets by a single user.
o - 10 paid social media monitoring services for nonprofits -- Annotated listing. January 2012.
o - 20 free awesome social media monitoring tools -- Annotated listing, January 2011.
o - A WIKI of social media monitoring solutions -- Extensive list (approx.225) of media monitoring companies and tools, fee-based as well as for free.
o - Archivist -- No longer active, commercial only, then updates just once every 60m. Statistical tool, accept a full Twitter search query
to return an overview with tweet volume over time, top users, tweet vs retweet, top words, top URLs and source.
o - Flock SN browser -- Supports Flickr, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and many others. Announced that they are no longer supporting updates in 2011.
Still downloadable at a.o. Filehippo.
o - Hyves -- Mainly Dutch social network. In Dutch. Offline since 02 Dec 2013.
o - Kurrently -- Real-time search engine, searches Facebook, Google+ and Twitter. Updates automatically.(Temporarily?) out
o - Listorious -- Was very useful to find "respected" people that are placed in Twitter lists. You could even interview people via Listorious.
Completely disappeared and replaced by its sister site MuckRack (see below)
o - Seesmic -- Ping.fm was acquired by Seesmic which in turn is now acquired by HootSuite 2012.
o - Sulia -- Subject-based social network. Discover top social sources in the subjects you're interested in.
o - Download.com --
o - Tucows xs4all --
Introduction: Offers lists of previous versions of software packages, apps and tools, in case the latest version is not compatible with...,
o - old Apps -- Lists software for Linux, Mac, Windows, different versions.
Introduction: Some tools useful for network security and penetration testing.
WARNING: these tools may or may not be illegal in your country. Use at your own risc. I do not accept any responsibility for the
use of these tools or any consequences thereof.
o - Aircrack-ng -- Is an 802.11 WEP and WPA-PSK keys cracking program that can recover keys once enough data packets have been captured. It implements
the standard FMS attack along with some optimizations like KoreK attacks, as well as the all-new PTW attack, thus making the
attack much faster compared to other WEP cracking tools.
o - Blue's port scanner -- Very fast port scanner. German.
o - Cain & Abel -- By OXid.it. Recovery of various kind of passwords by sniffing the network, cracking encrypted passwords using Dictionary,
Brute-Force and Cryptanalysis attacks, recording VoIP conversations, decoding scrambled passwords, recovering wireless network
keys, revealing password boxes, uncovering cached passwords and analyzing routing protocols. For XP.
o - Distributed password recovery -- To recover password from a variet of documetns
o - Nmap port scanner --
o - sharK PWB++ -- Remote administration tool to take full control of a remote computer
o - Copernic -- Copernic Agent is the client to assist in searching the web. There are other very useful products as well, also to manage
downloaded data. Very good and cheap set of tools.
o - Zotero -- Free plugin for o.a. Firefox, to collect, organize, cite and share your research sources.
Introduction: Mainly used for forensic research, but also for other applications
o - Maltego -- Maltego is an open source intelligence and forensics application. Used to determine the relationships and real world links
between: Groups of people (social networks), Companies, Organizations, Web sites, Internet infrastructure (Domains, DNS names,
Netblocks, IP addresses, Phrases, Affiliations), documents and files. Not easy to use, and bit overwhelming interface, but
a must have once the basics are mastered.
o - Palantir -- "...a platform for information analysis. Palantir was designed for environments where the fragments of data that an analyst
combines to tell the larger story are spread across a vast set of starting material. Palantir provides flexible tools to import
and model data, intuitive constructs to search against this data, and powerful techniques to iteratively define and test hypotheses."
o - Recorded Future --
Also see: Internet tools -- Statistical Resources, for statistics regarding the use of the Internet.
o - Statline CBS -- Database of the Dutch Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Including search engine. "Statistics Netherlands is responsible for collecting and processing data in order to publish statistics to be used in practice,
by policymakers and for scientific research. In addition to its responsibility for (official) national statistics, Statistics
Netherlands also has the task of producing European (community) statistics."
o - HealthStats -- World Bank's database of Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) statistics. It includes over 250 indicators on different health
related topics. You can search the database by country, topic or indicator.
o - Statistical resources on the Web - comprehensive subjects --
o - Statistische Bureau's Wereldwijd --
o - Eurostat -- European Commission. Your key to European Statistics.
o - U.S. Census Bureau --
o - Lyng -- Large, extensive. International, listing almost all satellites and channels per country and satellite.
o - SatcoDX --
Introduction: Also consider sites with recordings of recent TV broadcasts (Dutch: 'uitzending gemist') and off course Usenet.
o - AOL video -- Still in Beta. Formerly ''Singing Fish''. Channels,
o - Blinkx -- Search engine enables searching not only on added keywords but also on the transcript of the actual broadcast. Categorized.
Uses Autonomy technology. Annoying adds.
o - Dailymotion -- French, Paris. Available in 34 localised versions and 16 languages. Better quality content. Teamed up with Blinkx.
o - Keek -- New social network that enables the upload of short videos (approx 30 sedonds). Searchable, follow users. In short: The Video-Twitter
o - MetaCafe --
o - Search for Video --
o - Vimeo -- From New York, originated from video makers.
o - Vine -- Owned by Twitter. Platform on iOS and Android to share short loop video clips. Mobile only. With chat function
o - Yahoo video --
o - YouTube -- Primary source for video clips and longer fragments. Censored. Bought by Google in 2006.
o - Business -- And go to media and entertainment; film; docu and nonfiction; distributors.
o - DocuSeek film & video finder --
o - DocumentaryTube -- A directory to find handpicked documentaries. Contain a "Top 100". Searchable or browse through the more than 30 categories.
o - European Broadcasting Union --
o - Georgetown University Library -- Limited to the Middle East and Africa, but of high quality.
o - Insight News TV --
o - Screencast-o-matic --
o - Google video -- Closed down 2011, content removed.
o - Truveo -- Closed. See AOL Video.
o - National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) -- START is a university-based research and education center comprised of an international network of scholars committed to the
scientific study of the causes and human consequences of terrorism in the United States and around the world.
o - American Society for Industrial Security --
o - Combating Terrorism Center -- Independent research center located at West Point. Publishes a free monthly magazine, The Sentinel.
o - Foundation for Defense of Democracies -- The Foundation for Defense of Democracies is a policy institute focusing on terrorism, the ideologies that drive terrorism
and the policies that can most effectively eradicate terrorism.
o - Jamestown Foundation Terrorism Monitor -- Previously named the "Global Terrorism Analysis Program" (GTA).
o - National Counterterrorism Center -- usa.
"...integrating and analyzing all intelligence pertaining to terrorism possessed or acquired by the U.S. governmen, principal
advisor to the DNI on intelligence operations and analysis relating to counterterrorism.". Also pulishes the Counterterrorism
Calendar, worldwide list of terrorist groups and profiles, interactive timeline maps.
o - Perspectives on Terrorism -- perspectives on Terrorism is a peer-reviewed online journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI). It is published six
times per year. Subscription is free.
o - RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents -- The RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents (RDWTI) is a compilation of data from 1968 through 2009.
o - RAND Terrorism and Homeland Security --
o - START's Global Terrorism Database -- The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) is an open-source database including information on terrorist events around the world
from 1970 through 2011 (with additional annual updates planned for the future). Includes more than 113,000 cases. Holds the
Terrorist Organisation Profiles (TOP) from the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base (TKB).
o - South Asia Terrorism Portal -- SATP is the largest website on terrorism and low intensity warfare in South Asia.
o - The Washington Institute Policy Analysis: Terrorism -- Policy and analytic publications focused on the Middle East. More than just terrorism related.
o - Transnational Threats Project -- From the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). The Transnational Threats Project assesses terror, insurgent,
and criminal networks and the impact of government responses through targeted field work and an extensive network of specialists.
o - International Relations and Security Network: Terrorism issues -- Choose "By subject" and then pick in the left side panel "Terrorism". The result is a listing of publications from the better
institutes and organisations. Select the information by publication, organisation, article, video or audio. Also take a look
at the left side panel to select more specific sub-topics in the field of terrorism.
o - internet websites and links for (counter) terrorism research -- By Berto Jongman. In: Perspectives on Terrorism. - Vol.5, no.1 (2011). Excellent categorised and annotated listing of selected
general sites, newsportals, databases, group profiles, journals, organisations, etc. Also covering major topics like cyberterrorism,
o - Counterterrorism Blog -- Excellent blog, seized at March 11 2011
o - MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base -- Online portal containing information on terrorist incidents, leaders, groups, and related court cases. The database is now
hosted by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. Profiles are still available via